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Vol. 2, No. 1 (Spring 1994)

Papers / Articles

The Road from Marrakech: the Quest for Economic Internationalism in an Age of Ambivalence

Roy MacLaren

Forty-seven years ago the international community gathered at Bretton-Woods to build, among other things, a new international trade organization. That effort collapsed largely because some lacked the collective will and vision to transcend their individual interests. The author asks whether the World Trading Organization (WTO) will be the beginning of a new chapter in international con-census building - the cornerstone of the "New World Order" for which we have all been searching - or another missed opportunity?

Canada 21: A Moment and A Model

Janice Gross Stein

Canada as a Sovereign State

Franklin Griffiths

Canada’s sovereignty problem is less and less the familiar one of enforcing writ or title against foreign intruder, whether it be drug trafficker, illegal immigrant, or uninvited American icebreaker. This article contends that Canada’s sovereignty requirements have changed in ways that demand a transfer of resources from defence to culture and communications. The state of Canada’s cultural life becomes a key variable in its international security policy; in the survival of Canadians as a people with the capacity to make autonomous choices in an interdependent world. Those who conceive of Canadian culture in terms of cultural industries, employment potential, and the like are invited to regard culture as fundamental in maintaining their country’s security.

International Security Institutions: NATO and the CSCE

John Halstead

This article’s aim is not to find roles for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) that will keep them in existence, but rather to see whether these institutions can meet the new requirements of collective or common security in the post-Cold War world. The article recommends a policy approach that will serve both Canada’s security needs and those of the international community; The author concludes that sooner or later, the disconnect between an activist Canadian Foreign Policy and a minimalist defence policy; within the framework of a contracting federal budget, will have to be faced.

Canada and the United Nations: Pursuing Common Security

David Cox

There is some promise that the needed reforms to United Nations ((IN) peacekeeping operations are within reach, but it is doubtful if they can be totally divorced from the broader need to correct the structural and procedural failings of the UN. This article begins by assessing Canada’s broad security interests in an effective UN. It then proceeds to summarize the sobering criticisms of the UN’s performance record, and, somewhat offsetting this, to assess the requirements for improved peacekeeping and the steps which have now been taken to this end. The article concludes with proposals for Canadian action which are compatible with existing peacekeeping policies, but which require measures involving hard choices about the allocation of Canada’s defence resources.

Canadian Relations with the New Russia

John M. Lamb

Russia, more than virtually any other country except perhaps China, has the population, resource base and global weight to represent for Canada a major partner in regional and world affairs. This article is optimistic about Russia’s ability to establish a market economy and to build a civil society based on a democratic form of government. It examines Canada’s main security concerns vis-à-vis Russia as it evolves toward this more market-driven, democratic society. These concerns include potential conflicts with neighbouring countries, environmental time bombs, and implications of increased military activity in the Arctic. The article concludes with a series of policy recommendations for Canada’s policy approach, including the doubling of its technical assistance program to Russia to $300 million over five years.

A Strategy of Choice: Preparing the Canadian Armed Forces for the 21st Century

Douglas Bland

This article examines the basic assumptions behind Canadian defence planning and suggests a new conceptual framework from which to determine Canadian defence priorities and needs. The discussion begins with an examination of the some of the inefficiencies in how defence expenditures are allocated and how certain policies tend to reinforce these inefficiencies. This is followed by analysis of two different approaches to the development of national military structures. The analysis provides the context for the development of a new framework - a strategy of choice - for determining Canadian defence needs.

Populism, Unemployment and Foreign Policy

Samuel D. Porteous

Whether the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) requires a social clause or the International Labour Organization (ILO) needs restructuring are questions fundamental to the future of the developed world. This is because jobless growth, falling real wages and increasing income disparities within the developed countries have helped fuel the wave of political unrest and populism now sweeping the Group of Seven (G-7) countries.

Trade and Investment Policy under NAFTA; As If Jobs Mattered

Bruce Campbell