


OttawaCarleton Institute for Computer Science
Herzberg Building 5302
Telephone: 5204333
Fax: 5204334
Email: scs@carleton.ca
Web site: www.scs.carleton.ca
The Institute
Director of the Institute: Ivan Stojmenovic
Associate Director of the Institute: JeanPierre Corriveau
Students who wish to pursue studies in computer science leading to an
M.C.S. or a Ph.D. degree can do so in a joint program offered by the School
of Information Technology and Engineering at the University of Ottawa and
the School of Computer Science at Carleton University under the auspices of
the OttawaCarleton Institute for Computer Science. The Institute is
responsible for supervising the program and for providing a framework for
interaction between the two departments at the research level. In addition
to the faculty members from the two computer science departments, the
Institute also has members with computer science expertise from other
departments.
The M.C.S. is also available as part of ConGESE (Consortium for Graduate
Education in Software Engineering), a collaborative program offering a
specialization in software engineering. This program is geared towards
software professionals working for participating industrial partners. The
ConGESE program imposes further regulations and requirements on the
existing program. The degree will in each case specify the discipline of
the participating unit with Specialization in Software Engineering.
Additional information is available from the graduate supervisor and on the
Web (by searching for Congese).
Requests for information, and completed applications, should be sent to
the graduate supervisor of the academic unit in which the candidate expects
to find a supervisor.
Members of the Institute
The "home" department of each member is indicated by (SITE) for the
School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa;
(ADM) for Faculty of Administratio n, University of Ottawa; (MCG) for the
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa; (SCS) for the
School of Computer Science, Carleton University; (MAT) for the School of
Mathematics and Statistics, Carleton University; (SCE) for the Department
of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University; (C) for the
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University;
(BUS) for the School of Business, Carleton University.
 D. Amyot, Software engineering, requirements engineering,
feature interactions (SITE)
 M. Barbeau, Telecommunications software, distributed systems,
mobile and wireless networks (SCS)
 Caroline Barrière, Natural language processing, lexical
knowledge bases, computational lexicography, knowledge acquisition and
representation (SITE)
 L. Bertossi,Database systems, intelligent information systems,
knowledge representation (SCS)
 Gregor von Bochmann, Communication protocols, software
engineering, formal specifications, verification and validation,
distributed applications and systems management, multimedia, highspeed
networks, realtime systems (SITE)
 F. Bordeleau, Objectoriented system design, realtime and
distributed systems, software engineering (SCS)
 P. K. Bose, Applied geometric computing, computational geometry,
data structures, algorithm design and analysis, randomized algorithms,
graph theory (SCS)
 M. Bouchard,Signal processing, adaptive filtering, neural
networks and control, applied to speech, acoustics and audio
(SITE)
 Sylvia Boyd,Combinatorial optimization, algorithm design and
analysis, graph theory, polyhedral combinatorics (SITE)
 Lionel Briand, Software verification and validation, software
design for testability and maintainability, software quality assurance
and measurement (SCE)
 J.P. Corriveau, Cognitive science, natural language
understanding, CASE and knowledgebased tools, objectoriented
technology (SCS)
 Jurek Czyzowicz, (SITE/SCS  Adjunct)
 A. Dabrowski, (SITE)
 S. Dandamudi, Parallel and distributed systems, database
systems, performance evaluation, computer architecture, operating
systems (SCS)
 F. Dehne, Computational complexity, design and analysis of
algorithms, computational geometry, parallel and systolic algorithms
(SCS)
 D. Deugo, Largescale distributed object computing, evolutionary
computation (genetic algorithms, genetic programming, artificial life)
and objectoriented systems (SCS)
 J.D. Dixon, Algorithms in algebra and number theory, complexity
theory, group theory and representation (MAT)
 S. Dobrev, Design and analysis of algorithms, distributed
algorithms, combinatorial algorithms, fault tolerance, mobile
computing, interconnection networks, structural information in
distributed computing (SITE)
 Eric Dubois, Digital signal processing, multidimensional signal
processing, data compression, source coding, image/video processing and
coding (SITE)
 A. El Saddik, Multimedia communications (SITE)
 A.E.F. Fahim,Nonlinear optimization, computer aided design and
manufacturing (CAD/CAM) methodology and software, flexible
manufacturing cell (FMC) control environment, robot control, expert
systems for design and manufacturing (MCG)
 A.P. Felty, Theorem proving, automated deduction, formal methods
in software engineering, computational logic (SITE)
 P. Flocchini, Distributed computing, distributed algorithms,
sense of direction, compact routing, cellular automata, discrete chaos
(SITE)
 N.D. Georganas, Multimedia broadband communications,
computercommunications (SITE)
 V. Groza, (SITE)
 Robert Holte, Artificial Intelligence, machine learning,
knowledge compilation, heuristic search (SITE)
 N. Holtz, Computerassisted structural engineering
(CVE)
 D.J. Howe, Automated reasoning, applied logic, formal methods in
software engineering, programming languages (SCS)
 D.I.A. Ionescu, Computers, artificial intelligence, image
processing, discrete event and realtime systems (SITE)
 N. Japkowicz, Artificial Intelligence, machine learning
(SITE)
 M. Just, Cryptography and security (SCS  Adjunct)
 A. Karmouch, Multimedia communications, multimedia realtime
distributed information systems and databases (SITE)
 G.E. Kersten, Expert systems, decision support systems (BUS 
Adjunct)
 E. Kranakis, Cryptography, combinatorial analysis, computational
geometry, distributed computing, distributed and data networks
(SCS)
 D. Krizanc, Parallel and distributed computing, analysis of
algorithms and use of randomization in computation (SCS 
Adjunct)
 T. Kunz, Wireless and mobile computing, load balancing in
distributed systems, distributed programming environments for parallel
and distributed systems, distributed systems management, parallel and
distributed debugging, program understanding (SCE)
 R. Laganière, Computer vision, image processing (SITE)
 W.R. Lalonde, Symbolic processing languages, fifth generation
machines, learning systems, compilers, artificial intelligence
(SCS)
 M. Lanthier, Behaviourbased robotics, artificial life,
computational geometry, shortest path computations, GIS applications,
parallel and distributed computing applications (SCS)
 T. Lethbridge, Humancomputer interaction/user interfaces,
software engineering, software visualization, software reverse
engineering, knowledge representation (SITE)
 M. Liu, Database systems, Web query and inference technologies,
objectoriented programming, and logic programming(SCS)
 L. Logrippo, Telecommunications software engineering, software
specification and verification with emphasis on distributed software
(SITE)
 C.H. Lung, Software engineering, network traffic engineering,
distributed and parallel computing (SCE)
 A. Maheshwari, Data structures and algorithms, parallel
computation, computational geometry, graph algorithms (SCS)
 S.A. Mahmoud, Wireless communication systems, protocols for
highspeed networks, speech processing and computer network design
(SCE)
 S. Majumdar, Parallel and distributed systems, performance
evaluation, operating systems (SCE)
 D. Makrakis, Computer Networks: Architectures, Protocols,
Management, Broadband Applications (SITE)
 M. Marchand, Artificial neural networks, machine learning and
applications, pattern recognition (SITE)
 S.J. Matwin, Artificial intelligence, knowledgebased systems,
machine learning, software reuse (SITE)
 D. R. McDonald, Applied probability, rare events in queueing
networks, applications to telecommunications (SITE)
 A. Miri, (SITE)
 P. Morin, Computational geometry, parallel algorithms, network
algorithms and cryptography (SCS)
 L.R. Morris, Digital signal processing, speech analysis and
synthesis, computer graphics (SCE)
 B.C. Mortimer, Errorcorrecting codes, combinatorics, algorithm
design and analysis, group theory (MAT)
 L. Moura, Combinatorial algorithms, combinatorial designs and
their applications, combinatorial optimization (SITE)
 D. Nussbaum, Computational geometry, medical computing, parallel
and distributed computing, geographic information systems, robotics and
machine vision, data structures and algorithms (SCS)
 J. Oommen, Learning systems, stochastic automata, pattern
recognition, image processing, adaptive data structures (SCS)
 F. Oppacher, Artificial intelligence, genetic algorithms,
evolutionary computing, machine learning (SCS)
 L. OrozcoBarbosa, Computer arch itecture, computer networks and
performance evaluation (SITE)
 B. Pagurek,Communications network management, artificial
intelligence and fault management, knowledgebased software debugging
(SCE)
 D. Panario, Computer algebra, analytic combinatorics, analysis
of algorithms, cryptography, analytic, computational and combinatorial
number theory (MAT)
 P. Payeur, 3D modeling for robotics, computer vision,
autonomous systems (SITE)
 D. C. Petriu, Performance evaluation, software engineering
(SCE)
 E.M. Petriu, Robotic sensing and perception, neural networks
(SITE)
 R.L. Probert, Quality engineering of communications protocols
and communications software, accelerated techniques for software
engineering (SITE)
 J. Pugh,Objectoriented programming systems, user interfaces,
computer graphics (SCS  Adjunct)
 J. Raymond, Teleeducation, intranet (SITE)
 G. Roth, Computer vision, image processing, evolutionary
algorithms, virtual reality and multimedia, computer graphics (SCS 
Adjunct)
 J.R. Sack, Algorithms and complexity, computational geometry,
graphics, pattern recognition, robotics (SCS)
 N. Santoro, Distributed computing, fault tolerance, discrete
chaos, reactive environments (SCS)
 P. Scott, Logic, theoretical computer science, category theory
(SITE)
 B. Selic, Software engineering, realtime systems,
objectoriented modeling, quality of service (SCS  Adjunct)
 J.B. Sidney, Combinatorial optimization, job shop scheduling
(SITE)
 D.R. Skuce, Applications of artificial intelligence, expert
systems, intelligent help and text retrieval, natural language
understanding (SITE)
 M. Smid, Computational geometry, data structures, geometric
networks, randomized algorithms, applications of computational geometry
in manufacturing and in the analysis of terrains (SCS)
 A. Somayaji, Operating system security, intrusion detection,
complex adaptive systems, artificial life (SCS)
 B. Stevens,Combinatorics (MAT)
 I. Stojmenovic, Wireless networks and mobile computing,
algorithms (SITE)
 S. Szpakowicz, Computational linguistics, knowledge acquisition,
decision support systems (SITE)
 D.A. Thomas, Artificial intelligence, fifth generation machines
(SCS  Adjunct)
 M. Turcotte, Bioinformatics, algorithm design, applications of
machine learning (SITE)
 H. Ural, Software reliability, verification and testing,
communication protocols, distributed computing (SITE)
 R. Vaillancourt, Differential equations, numerical and applied
mathematics, scientific computation, image compression (JPEG, MPEG),
wavelets, chirplets (SITE)
 P. van Oorschot, Authentication, network security, software
security, software protection, cryptography and cryptographic
protocols, digital signatures, public key infrastructure (PKI) and key
management, software tamper resistance, automated obfuscation,
encryption (SCS)
 M. Vigder, Component software engineering (SCS 
Adjunct)
 H.L. Viktor, Data mining, information fusion and data
warehousing (SITE)
 G.A. Wainer, DEVS formalism, RealTime modeling, cellular
models, modeling and simulation methodologies and tools,
parallel/distributed/Webbased simulation, RealTime operating systems
(SCE)
 M. Weiss, Electronic commerce, network communities, agent
patterns (SCS)
 G.M. White, Information systems, dynamic workflow systems,
timetabling and scheduling (SITE)
 T. White, Mobile agents, swarm and collective intelligence,
evolutionary computing, Internet applications, peertopeer computing
(SCS)
 A.W. Williams, Software testing, multiplatform software
development, software engineering (SITE)
 C.M. Woodside, Performance modeling, performance of distributed
software, software design, queueing theo ry (SCE)
 D.J. Wright, Voice over packet networks, business case for
broadband networks, electronic commerce, telelearning (ADM)
 M.C.E. Yagoub, Artificial neural networks for communication
systems, optimization methods (SITE)
 T. Yamakami, Quantum complexity, theory of relativization,
cryptography, averagecase complexity, logic, and recursion theory
(SITE)
 O. W. Yang, Computer communications network and protocol design,
modeling, performance evaluation, queueing theory internetworking,
photonic and IP networks (SITE)
 J. Yao, Microwave photoinics, fibreoptic communications,
fibreoptic sensors, optical signal processing (SITE)
 N. Zaguia, (SITE)
 J. Zhao, Image and video processing, multimedia communications
(SITE)
Master of Computer Science
Admission Requirements
Applicants should have an Honours bachelor's degree in computer science
or the equivalent, with at least high honours standing. By equivalent is
meant an Honours degree in a program which includes at least twelve
computer science halfcredits, two of which must be at the 4000level, as
well as eight half credits in mathematics, one of which must be at the
3000 or 4000level. These courses must include the topics indicated
below:Computer Science
Data structures/file management, operating systems, computer
architecture, algorithm design and analysis, assembly language and two
highlevel languagesMathematics
Calculus, linear algebra, algebraic structures or discrete mathematics,
probability and statistics, numerical analysis. Applicants who have a
general (3year) bachelor's degree, or who otherwise lack the required
undergraduate preparation, may be admitted to a qualifyingyear prog ram.
Refer to the General Regulations section of this Calendar for regulations
governing the qualifying year.
Program Requirements
The program includes graduate study and research in four broad areas
identified as follows:
 Software Engineering
 Theory of Computing
 Computer Applications
 Computer Systems
Within these areas, the program emphasizes problems of current practical
significance and has close links to the scientific and industrial
communities.
Normally, students in the program will be expected to complete a thesis;
however, students who have substantial relevant work experience may be
permitted to take the nonthesis option, which must include a graduate
research project course. Each candidate submitting a thesis will be
required to undertake an oral defence of the thesis.
Students in the thesis option must take 2.5 credits, fulfil the graduate
seminar requirement, and complete a thesis. Students in the nonthesis
option must take 4.0 credits, plus a graduate project (a project is equal
to 1.0 credit and may be completed in one or two terms), and fulfil the
graduate seminar requirement. The course selections must be approved by the
student's academic adviser, and must include at least:
 0.5 credit in software engineering
 0.5 credit in the theory of computing
 0.5 credit in either computer applications or computer systems
The graduate seminar requirement includes a seminar presentation and
participation in at least ten sessions in the joint graduate student
seminar series.
Both course and thesis work may be completed either by fulltime or
parttime study.
A candidate may be permitted to carry out thesis work off campus
provided suitable arrangements are made for supervision and experimental
work, and prior approval is given by the Institute.
Guidelines for Completion of Master's Degree
The following completion times are estimates only, based on fulltime
study, and are intended to provide guidance only.
Students are strongly urged to check with the supervisor of graduate
studies to determine the exact requirements of the degree program and other
related information. Parttime students should calculate the completion
times requirement by doubling the time estimates given below.
Students should complete the course work within the first two terms.
Selection of courses should be done in consultation with the student's
faculty advisor. Approval from the Graduate Supervisor of the Institute is
only required for courses not listed as valid OCICS courses. Subject to the
approval of the Graduate Supervisor, M.C.S. students may take courses in
other relevant disciplines. At least half of the course credits of an
M.C.S. student must be valid OCICS courses. At most, two Fourth Year
undergraduate courses may be taken with the permission of the Graduate
Supervisor. A thesis supervisor and thesis topic must be selected by the
end of the second term. The supervisor of graduate studies should be
formally notified of this selection. The expected completion time for the
M.C.S. degree is four to six terms of fulltime study depending on the type
of thesis and the area of research.
Doctor of Philosophy
Admission Requirements
A master's degree in Computer Science (or the equivalent) with high
secondclass standing is normally required for admission into the Ph.D.
program. Students who are currently registered in the M.C.S. program may,
in exceptional cases, be permitted to transfer into the Ph.D. program if
they have completed all course requirements with at least high secondclass
standing and demonstrate significant promise for advanced research.
Program Requirements
A minimum of 1.5 credits at the graduate level in at least three
different research areas (see OCICS course grouping by area). The admission
committee and the student's advisory committee may impose additional
program requirements according to the stu dent's background and research
topic. The thesis weight will be of 8.5 credits.
Presentation of at least two seminars in the OttawaCarleton Institute
for Computer Science seminar series: Minimally, the student must make one
presentation for the graduate seminar, as well as one presentation for the
departmental seminar.
A comprehensive examination (COMP 6907) involving breadth and depth
components.
A written thesis proposal (COMP 6908) defended at an oral
examination.
A research thesis (COMP 6909) defended at an oral examination.
Guidelines for Completion of Doctoral Degree
The following completion times are estimates based on fulltime
study.
During the first term, the student and his or her faculty adviser should
select graduate courses related to their area(s) of research and interests.
Approval from the Graduate Supervisor of the Institute is only required for
courses not listed as valid OCICS courses. Subject to the approval of the
Graduate Supervisor, Ph.D. students may take courses in other relevant
disciplines. At least half of the course credits of a Ph.D. student must be
valid OCICS courses. An advisory committee comprised of three to five
faculty members must be established before the student registers in the
comprehensive examination. The committee is responsible for the
comprehensive examination, the thesis proposal, and for guiding the
student's research. The advisory committee must include at least one
representative from SITE. The advisory committee must be approved by the
director or associate director of the Institute. Comprehensive examinations
(see COMP 6907) must be taken within the first 4 terms. All course
requirements must be completed within the first 6 terms. Within the first 8
terms, the student must submit a written thesis proposal and defend it in
an oral examination (see COMP 6908). The expected completion time for the
Ph.D. program is approximately twelve terms depending on the type of thesis
and the area of research. Before the comple tion of the program, the
student is expected to present at least two seminars in the OttawaCarleton
Institute for Computer Science seminar series.
Residence Requirement
Students must fulfil a residence requirement of at least four terms of
fulltime study.
Graduate Courses
Not all of the following courses are offered in a given year. For an
uptodate statement of course offerings for 20042005, please consult the
Registration Instructions and Class Schedule booklet, published in the
summer.
To determine the term of offering, consult the Registration Instructions
and Class Schedule booklet, or online at:
www.carleton.ca/cu/programs/sched_dates/
Subject to the approval of the Graduate Supervisor, M.C.S. and Ph.D.
students may take courses in other relevant disciplines. The courses in the
following list are offered by the two departments forming OCICS.
 Carleton University
 COMP School of Computer Science
 University of Ottawa
 CSI School of Information Technology and Engineering
 Software Engineering
 COMP 5001 (CSI 5113)
 COMP 5104 (CSI 5314)
 COMP 5106 (CSI 5123)
 COMP 5400 (CSI 5310)
 COMP 5403 (CSI 5143)
 COMP 6104 (CSI 7314)
 COMP 6603 (CSI 7161)
 CSI 5107 (COMP 5609) Program Construction and Fault Tolerance
 CSI 5109 (COMP 5701) Specification Methods for Distributed
Systems
 CSI 5111 (COMP 5501) Software Quality Engineering
 CSI 5115 (COMP 5503) Database Analysis and Design
 CSI 5118 (COMP 5302) Automated Verification and Validation of
Software
 CSI 5122 (COMP 5301) Software Usability
 CSI 5181 (COMP 5705) Artificial Intelligence in Software
Engineering
 CSI 5184 (COMP 5804) Logic Programming
 CSI 5507(COMP 5609) La Construction et la Tolérance aux Fautes des
Programmes
 CSI 5509 (COMP 5701) Méthodes Algébriques pour la Spécification de
Systemes Répartis
 CSI 5518(COMP 5708) Conception des compilateurs et traducteurs
 CSI 5584 (COMP 5804 Programmation logique
 Theory of Computing
 COMP 5003 (CSI 5308)
 COMP 5005 (CSI 5390)
 COMP 5008 (CSI 5164)
 COMP 5107 (CSI 5185)
 COMP 5203 (CSI 5173)
 COMP 5404 (CSI 5144)
 COMP 5408 (CSI 5121)
 COMP 5409 (CSI 5127)
 COMP 5703 (CSI 5163)
 COMP/MATH 5807 (CSI 5104)
 COMP 6601 (CSI 7160)
 COMP 6602 (CSI 7170)
 CSI 5101 (COMP 5601) Formal Models of Computational Systems
 CSI 5107 (COMP 5609) Program Construction and Fault Tolerance
 CSI 5108 (COMP 5700) Software Specification and Verification
 CSI 5110 (COMP 5707) Principles of Formal Software Development
 CSI 5162 (COMP 5702) Orde r: Its Algorithms and Graphical Data
Structures
 CSI 5164 (COMP 5008) Computational Geometry
 CSI 5165 (COMP 5709) Combinatorial Algorithms
 CSI 5166(COMP 5805) Applications of Combinatorial Optimization
 CSI 5169 (COMP 5304) Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing
 CSI 5174 (COMP 5604) Validation Methods for Distributed
Systems
 CSI 5367 (COMP 5300) Structure in Complexity Theory
 CSI 5507 (COMP 5609) La Construction et la Tolérance aux Fautes de
Programmes
 CSI 5508 (COMP 5700) Spécification et Vérification de
Logiciels
 CSI 5510 (COMP 5707) Principes de développement formel de
logiciels
 CSI 5565 (COMP 5709 Algorithmes Combinatoires
 Computer Applications
 COMP 5006 (CSI 5306)
 COMP 5100 (CSI 5180)
 COMP 5204 (CSI 5124)
 COMP 5206 (CSI 5183)
 COMP
5305 (CSI 5129)
 COMP 5401 (CSI 5389)
 COMP 5406 (CSI 5105)
 COMP 5407 (CSI 5116)
 COMP 6604 (CSI 7162)
 CSI 5114 (COMP 5504 Automated Office Systems
 CSI 5125 (COMP 5107) Simulation
 CSI 5126 (COMP 5108) Algorithms in Bioinformatics
 CSI 5161 (COMP 5606) Topics in System Simulation and
Optimization
 CSI 5162 (COMP 5702) Order: Its Algorithms and Graphical Data
Structures
 CSI 5181 (COMP 5705) Artificial Intelligence Applications in
Software Engineering
 CSI 5304 (COMP 5602) Knowledge Engineering
 CSI 5380 (COMP 5405) Systems and Architectures for Electronic
Commerce
 CSI 5386 (COMP 5505) Natural Language Processing
 CSI 5387 (COMP 5706) Data Mining and Concept Learning
 CSI 5388 (COMP 5801) Topics in Machine Learning
 CSI 5514 (COMP 5504) Bureautique
 CSI 5580 (COMP 5100) Sujet en intelligence artificielle
 CSI 5581 (COMP 5705) Applications de l'intelligence artificielle
dans le développement des systèmes
 CSI 5787 (COMP 5706) Apprentissage Symbolique Automatique
 Computer Systems
 COMP 5003 (CSI 5308)
 COMP 5009 (CSI 5141)
 COMP 5101 (CSI 5311)
 COMP 5102 (CSI 5312)
 COMP 5105 (CSI 5132)
 COMP 5107 (CSI 5185)
 COMP 5203 (CSI 5173)
 COMP
5305 (CSI 5129)
 COMP 5401 (CSI 5389)
 COMP 5402 (CSI 5142)
 COMP 5403 (CSI 5143)
 COMP 5406 (CSI 5105)
 COMP 5407 (CSI 5116)
 COMP 5704 (CSI 5131)
 COMP 6100 (CSI 7131)
 COMP 6602 (CSI 7170)
 COMP 6605 (CSI 7163)
 CSI 5109 (COMP 5701) Specification Methods for Distributed
Systems
 CSI 5114 (COMP 5504) Automated Office Systems
 CSI 5133 (COMP 5608) Simulation and Testing of Logic Circuits
 CSI 5169 (COMP 5304) Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing
 CSI 5170 (COMP 5800) Distributed Data Processing
 CSI 5171 (COMP 5303) Network Architectures, Services, Protocols and
Standards
 CSI 5174 (COMP 5604) Validation Methods for Distributed
Systems
 CSI 5380 (COMP 5405) Systems and Architectures for Electronic
Commerce
 CSI 5509 (COMP 5701) Méthodes Algébriques pour la Spécification de
Systems Répartis
 CSI 5514 (COMP 5504 ) Bureautique
 Theses, Projects and Topics
 COMP 5900 (CSI 5140)
 COMP 5901 (CSI 5901)
 COMP 5902 (CSI 5900)
 COMP 5903 (CSI 6900)
 COMP 5904 (CSI 5902)
 COMP 5905 (CSI 7999)
 COMP 6601 (CSI 7160)
 COMP 6602 (CSI 7170)
 COMP 6603 (CSI 7161)
 COMP 6604 (CSI 7162)
 COMP 6605 (CSI 7163)
 COMP 6901 (CSI 7901)
 COMP 6902 (CSI 7900)
 COMP 6907 (CSI 9998)
 COMP 6908 (CSI 9997)
 COMP 6909 (CSI 9999)

